Diet quality in patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing dialysis


SUMMARY

Background

People on haemodialysis (HD) are at risk of consuming a poor quality diet. This includes inadequate intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA).

Objective

This study aims to investigate diet quality, with a particular focus on n-3 LCPUFA intake, in a population of incentre HD patients.

Design

Dietary intake was measured using three 24 hour recalls; the Polyunsaturated food frequency questionnaire (PUFA FFQ) and the Total Diet Score (TDS). Dietary intake was also compared to evidence based practice guidelines (EBPG). Nutritional status was assessed using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG SGA).

Subjects

A total of 32 dialysis patients were recruited, from two regional HD centres in New South Wales, Australia.

Main Outcome Measure

Diet quality was the main outcome measure.

Results

Diet quality of study participants was poor, with the majority not meeting the EBPG for energy, protein and potassium. All participants exceeded the recommended amount of saturated fat. The mean TDS of the dialysis cohort was 10.2, which was significantly higher than the TDS of 9.3 of a healthy disease free cohort (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between TDS and LC omega-3 intake (r = 0.392) and TDS and total omega-6 intake (r = 0.363). Only 22% of participants met the suggested dietary target for n-3 LCPUFA intake.

Conclusion

Dialysis patients in this study had suboptimal diet quality. Improvements are required for better adherence to the EBPG. Increased consumption of n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids may also be of benefit.



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